Secondhand smoke tied to lung cancer, heart disease, breast cancer, and pediatric ear infections according to a review of 1,000 studies
The California Environmental Protection Agency Air Resources Board is calling on California officials to classify secondhand smoke as a carcinogen. Their recommendation is based on over 1,000 studies detailing the hazardous effects of secondhand smoke. Based on the best studies available for instance, exposure to secondhand smoke ups a woman's risk of breast cancer by up to 90%. Secondhand smoke is also tied into low birth weight, ear infections in children, and both heart disease and lung cancer in adults. The EPA wants tougher legislation on indoor smoking in California. The report was presented by the California EPA on March 10th, 2005.
Vitamin C and Vitamin E and stroke risk
In the Rotterdam Study, 5,197 participants were followed for 6.4 years. 227 ischemic strokes occurred over this time. A higher intake of antioxidants was associated with a lower risk of stroke. There was a significant connection to vitamin C intake, and the more vitamin C consumed the lower the risk of stroke. In smokers, vitamin E intake reduced the risk of stroke. The study is published in the November 11th, 2003 issue of the journal Neurology.
Vitamin C decreases the risk of H. pylori associated stomach cancer (gastric cancer)
A case-control study comparing 295 cases of stomach cancer and age and sex matched cancer free individuals was conducted. It was found that having H pylori infection significantly increased the risk of developing gastric cancer if the patient was low in vitamin C, and higher levels of vitamin C decreased the risk of H pylori associated gastric cancer. The study is published in the January 2005 issue of the European Journal of Epidemiology.