Quercetin and other apple flavonols decrease the risk of pancreatic cancer in smokers
Smoking is an established cause of pancreatic cancer; a disease that is usually fatal. Scientists from the USA and Germany followed 183,518 study participants for eight years. The researchers determined eating Quercetin - a flavonol found most in apples and onions - along with other apple flavonols (Kaempferol, Myricetin) significantly reduced the risk of pancreatic cancer in current smokers. The study is published in the October 15th, 2007 issue of the American Journal of Epidemiology.
Lacking Glutathione related detoxification activity increases lung cancer risk in smokers
Cancer is controlled by a complex interaction between genes and environment. Environmental factors is especially true for lung cancer; the chief factor being smoking. However, the role of genes is still being elucidated. Glutathione Transferases (GSTP) are a group of enzyme that detoxify dangerous substances such as the cancer causing chemicals in cigarette smoke, drugs, and free radicals. GSTP enzymes utilize Glutathione to accomplish this. In mice with GSTP gene deficiency, therefore lacking GSTP activity it was found that they were not efficiently able to clear out smoking related toxins from their lungs and adducts (toxic tags) on their DNA occurred much more frequently. They developed far more cancerous tumors than mice that had normal GSTP activity. The study is published in the October 1st, 2007 issue of the journal Cancer Research.