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The relationship between pituitary hormones or between testosterone and prostate cancer is not completely understood. In this clinical study researchers at the department of urology at Hacettepe University School of Medicine in Ankara examined the levels of testosterone, free testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH), and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) in men undergoing ultrasonography guided prostate biopsy. A total of 211 men undergoing biopsy due to their PSA reading or due to an abnormal digital exam were included in the study. 32.7% of the patients were positive for prostate cancer. The men who were diagnosed with prostate cancer had lower testosterone than men with a swollen prostate and the serum FSH was significantly higher and there was no connection to LH levels. Men who had lower serum testosterone and lower free testosterone had a significantly higher cancer detection rate compared with men with high serum androgen levels. The study is published in the journal Urology International, 2007;79.