A UK study has found consuming broccoli can reverse damage caused to the heart blood vessels of diabetics due to the presence of a sulphur compound known as Sulforaphane. Researchers from the University of Warwick concluded the compound could function as a “dietary activator”, and thereby “prevent biochemical dysfunction and related functional responses of endothelial cells induced by hyperglycemia (elevated blood sugar)”.
Endothelial cells form a thin layer on blood vessel walls and these cells actively respond to changes in blood flow allowing blood vessels to open up or dilate; this helps prevent blood vessel damage, hardening of the arteries, and high blood pressure. Their dysfunction is a major cause of disease and death among diabetics and has also been linked to problems such as kidney disease.
Lead researcher Professor Paul Thornalley and his colleagues found the compound – Sulforaphane – provoked production of a protein called nrf2 that was beneficial to blood vessel health, even those damaged by hyperglycemia. Thornalley’s team observed a 73 per cent reduction of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS), which are commonly known as free radicals. ROS levels have been known to increase by as much as 300 per cent in diabetics. ROS cause tiny pockets of inflammation that destroy cells; destroy enough cells over time and you have a problem. “Our study suggests that compounds such as Sulforaphane from broccoli may help counter processes linked to the development of vascular disease in diabetes,” said Thornalley.
A free-radical reducing, antioxidant effect was observed among the incubated human endothelial cells kept in low and high glucose concentrations (five and 30mM). Activation of nrf2 was assessed. The presence of Sulforaphane doubled the activation of nrf2. Sulforaphane reduced free radical levels and products that cause glycation.
The study adds to a small but growing body of evidence demonstrating the potential for Brassica vegetables such as broccoli, Brussels sprouts, turnips and cabbages to benefit diabetic conditions. The study is published online ahead of print in the August 4, 2008 edition of the journal Diabetes. as db06-1003
Agent Orange Linked to Aggressive Prostate Cancer
UC Davis Cancer Center physicians today released results of research showing that Vietnam War veterans exposed to Agent Orange have greatly increased risks of prostate cancer and even greater risks of getting the most aggressive form of the disease as compared to those who were not exposed. The findings, which appear online now and will be published in the September 15 issue of the journal Cancer, are the first to link the herbicide with this form of cancer. The research is also the first to utilize a large population of men in their 60s and the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test to screen for the disease.
"While others have linked Agent Orange to cancers such as soft-tissue sarcomas, Hodgkin's disease and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, there is limited evidence so far associating it with prostate cancer," said Karim Chamie, lead author of the study and resident physician with the UC Davis Department of Urology and the VA Northern California Health Care System. "Here we report on the largest study to date of Vietnam War veterans exposed to Agent Orange and the incidence of prostate cancer."
Chamie also said that, unlike previous studies that were either too small or conducted on men who were too young, patients in the current study were entering their prime years for developing prostate cancer. There was also the added advantage that it was conducted entirely during the era of PSA screening, providing a powerful tool for early diagnosis and tracking of prostate cancer.
More than 13,000 Vietnam veterans enrolled in the VA Northern California Health Care System were stratified into two groups — exposed or not exposed to Agent Orange between 1962 and 1971. Based on medical evaluations conducted between 1998 and 2006, the study revealed that twice as many men exposed to Agent Orange were identified with prostate cancer. In addition, Agent Orange-exposed men were diagnosed two-and-a-half years younger and were nearly four times more likely to present with metastatic or advanced, more dangerous disease. Other prostate cancer risk factors — race, body-mass index and smoking — were not statistically different between the two groups.
"Our country's veterans deserve the best possible health care, and this study clearly confirms that Agent Orange exposure during service in Vietnam is associated with a higher risk of prostate cancer later in life," said Ralph deVere White, UC Davis Cancer Center director and a study co-author. "Just as those with a family history of prostate cancer or who are of African-American heritage are screened more frequently, so too should men with Agent Orange exposure be given priority consideration for all the screening and diagnostic tools we have at our disposal in the hopes of early detection and treatment of this disease."
Now a banned chemical, Agent Orange is a combination of two synthetic compounds known to be contaminated with the dioxin tetrachlorodibenzo-para-dioxin (TCDD) during the manufacturing process. Named for the color of the barrel in which it was stored, Agent Orange was one of many broad-leaf defoliants used in Vietnam to destroy dense forests in order to better visualize enemy activity.
It is estimated that more than 20 million gallons of the chemicals, also known as "rainbow herbicides," were sprayed between 1962 and 1971, contaminating both ground cover and ground troops. Most of the rainbow herbicide used during this time was Agent Orange. In 1997, the International Agency for Research on Cancer reclassified TCDD as a group 1 carcinogen, a classification that includes arsenic, asbestos and gamma radiation.
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